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Knee joins thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint). It is the largest joint in the human body. The knee is a modified hinge joint, which permits flexion and extension as well as slight internal and external rotation.

Types of Fractures:

There are three types of fractures based on the pattern of the fracture:


1.Fractures of thigh bone:


2. Fractures of leg bone:



Immediate management includes ice pack application and limb elevation with a pillow. 

Ice pack application
Limb elevation

Definitive management is decided by  fracture type whether its displaced or undisplaced.

Undisplaced Fracture:

  • Groin to toe plaster/Long knee brace for 6 to 12 weeks. Cast could be replaced with a knee brace after some period based on the fracture healing.
Plaster of paris for undisplaced fracture
Long knee brace
  • During cast treatment it is essential to repeat an x-ray for 10 to 15 days.

Displaced Fracture:

  • Treated surgically.
  • Displaced fractures are treated with plates and screws.
X-Ray showing open reduction internal fixation
Screw fixation


After surgery patients will be advised not to bear weight on the operated leg for atleast 4-6 weeks, followed by partial weight bearing and full weight bearing walking, depending upon the healing.

Non weight bearing is allowed with a shoe rise on normal side.

Picture showing shoe rise

3. Patella Fracture:

A patellar fracture is a break in the patella or knee cap, the small bone that sits at the front of the knee.

Patella fracture


  • Inability to straighten the knee joint.



  • Surgery is not required in an undisplaced fracture. Cast or splint is applied to keep the knee straight.
  • In some fractures weight bearing is allowed with the help of brace or cast.
  • In some fractures weight bearing is not allowed for 6 to 8 weeks.


Displaced fractures needs surgery

X-Ray showing tension band wiring
Patella Plate

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